Scriptural Evidence for House Churches 

Scriptural Evidence for House Churches


Calvin Lashway

May 2008 Revised


An increasing number of members from the Sabbatarian Church of God community are meeting in private homes each Sabbath for worship.  Known by various names such as Home Fellowships, House Churches, even the Living Room Church of God. They are often criticized for this practice by some of the leaders, and members of their community’s more traditional churches. We see an example of this criticism in a sermon given by a minister of one of these traditional churches: “In the NT, there was organization and congregations. Some think that a big organization is a bad thing. The Bible doesn't spell out the exact organization. It speaks of positions, elders, deacons. It talks about local churches. But there is no ‘Epistle to the Living Room church’. There is only one letter to scattered brethren, Hebrews, all the rest were to churches.”1


The speaker is implying that a house church is unbiblical, that it’s not a “congregation” or a “church.” What does the Bible say? Is the modern practice of people assembling in private homes for worship, fellowship and instruction unbiblical? The purpose of this study is to examine the scriptural evidence showing that it was the normal New Testament practice for Christians to assemble in private homes to worship God.


This study will not explore the subject of church government. The speaker also believes that a “living room church” or house church has no organization and leadership. This is simply not true. What is true is most house churches don’t practice the hierarchical and authoritarian form of government used by many of the traditional churches. Church government is another subject altogether, and in recent years many writers in the Sabbatarian community have explored this issue.2


Definition of the Word “Church”

The Greek word translated “church” in the New Testament is ekklesia 1577 "an assembly, a (religious) congregation" Abbott-Smith Lexicon. A church is not a building or a place where Christians meet; it’s an assembly or congregation of believers.


Historical Background

It’s crucial to remember there is no evidence: biblical, historical or archaeological of Christians having special buildings for worship during the first century. “Not until the first half of the third century did the Christians build houses of worship.”3


Richard Krautheimer writing in Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture states:

Until A.D. 200, then, a Christian architecture did not and could not exist. Only the state religion erected temples in the tradition of the Greek and Roman architecture. The saviour religions [for example Mithras or Isis], depending on the specific form of their ritual and the finances of their congregations, built oratories above or below ground, from the simplest to the most lavish but always on a small scale. Christian congregations prior to 200 were limited to the realm of domestic architecture, and further, to inconspicuous dwellings of the lower classes.4


As we examine the biblical evidence, we will see the importance of “domestic architecture;” that is the private home to the New Testament Church of God.


Direct Evidence for House Churches

First we will examine the direct scriptural evidence for Christians assembling in private homes. After looking at the direct evidence, we will examine the indirect evidence for home assemblies.5


Aquila and Priscilla’s Ephesus House Church

During the spring of A.D. 57,6 the apostle Paul writes what we know as First Corinthians, while staying in Ephesus. Where an assembly of Christians was meeting in the house of Aquila and Priscilla: “The churches of Asia greet you. Aquila and Prisca [Priscilla] greet you heartily in the Lord, with the church that is in their house” (1 Corinthians 16:19, all scriptures quoted are from the New American Standard Bible, unless otherwise stated). As we will see later, it’s doubtful this was the only house church in Ephesus.


Priscilla and Aquila’s Rome House Church

Paul writes a letter to the Roman Christians from Corinth during the spring of A.D. 58. By this time Priscilla and Aquila have returned to Rome, where they once lived (Acts 18:2), and an assembly of Christians are meeting in their house: “Greet Prisca [Priscilla] and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus, who for my life risked their own necks, to whom not only do I give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles; also greet the church that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first convert to Christ from Asia. “(Romans 16:3-5). Like Ephesus, we will see the house church of Priscilla and Aquila was not the only Roman house church.


Philemon’s House Church

Some time around A.D. 61 or 62, during his first Roman captivity (A.D. 61-63). Paul writes two letters to the brethren living in Colossae. The first letter is “To the saints and faithful brethren in Christ who are at Colossae” (Colossians 1:2). The second is a personal letter to “To Philemon our beloved brother and fellow worker, and to Apphia our sister, and to Archippus our fellow soldier, and to the church in your house” (Philemon 1:1-2). Two of Paul’s assistants, Tychicus and Onesimus delivered the first letter to Colossae (Colossians 4:7-9). Onesimus a native of Colossae, a runaway slave belonging to Philemon, delivered the second letter. Sometime after running away, Onesimus arrived in Rome, where he met the apostle Paul who was instrumental in his conversion (Philemon 1:15-16, 10). Apparently some or all the Colossian Christians assembled in Philemon’s home.


Nympha’ House Church

In his letter to the Colossians, Paul makes reference to another house church: “Greet the brethren who are in Laodicea and also Nympha and the church that is in her house” (Colossians 4:15). Apparently in the Laodicea region there are two groups of Christians. The first group being “the brethren who are in Laodicea,” or as in verse 16 “the church of the Laodiceans.” The second group is “Nympha and the church that is in her house.” It’s also possible that Paul is referring to only one group of people, and the entire Laodicean church assembled in the house of Nympha.


Small Congregations

We see from these scriptures that thirty years after the crucifixion, Christians are meeting in private homes. By the very nature of meeting in homes, these congregations were not large, but small. Each assembly was only as large as the biggest room in a given home.


Richard Krautheimer describes what these homes were like:

And as the congregations were recruited by and large from the lower and middle classes [1 Cor. 1:26-31], their houses would have been typical cheap houses. Such houses are know to us, if not from the first and second centuries, at least from the fourth and fifth. In the Eastern provinces, they were apparently one-family buildings up to four storeys high. The dining-room on top was the only large room, and often opened on a terrace. This is the upper floor, the anageion or hyperoon frequently mentioned in the Acts [Acts 1:7; 20:8], the room ‘high up, open to the light’, of which Tertullian still speaks after A.D. 200. The furnishings would simply consist of a table and three surrounding couches, from which the dining-room takes its name in Latinized Greek - the triclinium. The main couch opposite the entrance was presumable reserved for the elder, the host, and speaker as honoured guest. The congregations might crowd the room, including the window sills, so that at Troas - from the heat of the many lamps and the length of the sermon - a young man fell from the fourth floor (the tristegon), only to be resurrected by the preacher, St. Paul [Acts 20:5-10]. In Rome, where tenement houses with horizontal apartments were the rule, not necessarily including a dining-room, any large chamber may have served for these gatherings. No other rooms would have be required by the congregations.7


Indirect Evidence for House Churches

The following scriptures refer to Christians assembling in private homes. These verses are not as straightforward as the scriptures we just examined, but are indirect or secondary evidence.


Jerusalem House Churches

The first seven chapters of Acts are a condensed history of the early Church of God, covering the time period from A.D. 31 to 37. We can trace the practice of meeting in private homes back to the early Jerusalem Church of God.


The early New Testament church met in private homes for fellowship and meals. Luke records: “Day by day continuing with one mind in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, they were taking their meals together with gladness and sincerity of heart, praising God and having favor with all the people. And the Lord was adding to their number day by day those who were being saved” (Acts 2:46-47). Besides fellowship, private homes were also an important setting for the apostles to teach and preach: “And every day, in the temple and from house to house, they kept right on teaching and preaching Jesus as the Christ” (Acts 5:42).


Around A.D. 37, Saul led a persecution against the Jerusalem church (Acts 8:1-3). In writing about this persecution Luke records: “But Saul began ravaging the church, entering house after house, and dragging off men and women, he would put them in prison” (Acts 8:3). Why did Paul enter “house after house”? Because he knew that’s where he would find Christians gathering for fellowship and to hear the apostle’s teachings.


The private house was still in use as a location for Jerusalem Christians to assemble during another period of persecution in A.D. 44. During this persecution, Herod Agrippa kills James the brother of John, and has Peter imprisoned. Herod planed to keep Peter in prison until after Passover and the Days of Unleavened Bread, and then kill him (Acts 12:1-5).


While Peter is in prison, Jerusalem’s Christians are continually praying for him (Acts 12:5). The inference here is to communal prayer, not just individual prayer. Verses 6-11 deal with Peter’s miraculous release from prison during the middle of the night. Realizing he was free, and not dreaming, Peter “. . . came to the house of Mary the mother of John, whose surname was Mark; where many were gathered together praying” (verse 12). Peter may have gone to Mary’s house because he knew this was one of the Jerusalem homes where Christians met for fellowship and to hear the apostles’ teachings. What we do know is that on this night people were gathering at Mary’s home for prayer. Peter didn’t stay long at Mary’s house (verse 17), because it may have been a known location for Christian gatherings.


These verses in the book Acts indicate that the Jerusalem church was a collection of house churches.


Thessalonica House Church

After departing Philippi (Acts 16:40) the apostle Paul arrives in Thessalonica. It’s approximately the fall of A.D. 51. His preaching in the local synagogue on three Sabbaths results in some Jewish, and even a greater number of Gentile converts to Christianity (Acts 17:1-4). Some of the Jews in a jealous response stir up a mob of “wicked men from the market place” who attack the “house of Jason” looking for Paul and Silas (verse 5). While in Thessalonica Paul and Silas were staying in Jason’s house (verse 7). Not finding them at the “house of Jason,” the mob did find “Jason and some brethren” who they took to the authorities of the city (verse 6). There is the suggestion here the “house of Jason” was more then just the place where Paul and Silas were staying. It had become the first meeting place outside the synagogue for the church in Thessalonica.


Acts 17:4 records that some of the Jews as well as “God-fearing Greeks” and “leading women” of the city, “joined Paul and Silas.” This may mean more then accepting the same religion as Paul and Silas. When the mob raided the “house of Jason” they only found “Jason and some brethren” (verses 5- 6). This would imply that joining Paul and Silas meant joining them in assembling at the “house of Jason.” This is similar to what Paul did later in Corinth. He started out preaching in the synagogue, and after meeting resistance to the gospel, moved his preaching to a private house (Acts 18:1, 4, 6-7).


Corinth House Churches

After leaving Thessalonica, Paul travels to Berea, Athens, and then on to Corinth; where he stays for a year and a half, early A.D. 52 to the middle of A.D. 53 (Acts 17:10-18:1, 11). Paul starts out preaching in the local synagogue. With the Corinthian Jews rejecting Paul’s message, he concentrates on preaching to the Gentiles (Acts 18:1-6). He no longer goes to the synagogue to preach, but “. . . went to the house of a man named Titius Justus, a worshiper of God, whose house was next to the synagogue” (verse 7). The house of Titius Justus became Paul’s base of operation, and an early meeting place for the young Corinthian church. It looks as if the Corinthian church began as a house church.


It appears there were three other house churches in Corinth. Paul refers to two of these congregations in his first letter to the Corinthians, written from Ephesus during the spring of A.D. 57. The first one occurs in 1 Corinthians 1:11: “For it has been declared to me concerning you, my brethren, by those of Chloe’s household, that there are contentions among you” (New King James Version). Paul received information about the Corinthian Christians from people associated with an individual named of Chloe. The nature of this association is not clear. They could be members of Chloe’s family, household servants or possibly even members of a house church meeting in Chloe’s home.


We find a second reference in 1 Corinthians 1:16: “Now I did baptize also the household of Stephanas; beyond that, I do not know whether I baptized any other.” The Greek word translated “household” in verse 16 is oikos 3624, meaning “a house, a dwelling” Abbott-Smith Lexicon. At the close of First Corinthians, Paul refers a second time to Stephanas: “Now I urge you, brethren (you know the household of Stephanas, that they were the first fruits of Achaia, and that they have devoted themselves for ministry to the saints),” (1 Corinthians 16:15). The English word “household” is a translation of the Greek word oikia 3614, meaning “a house, dwelling” and is related to oikos 3624, Abbott-Smith Lexicon. The “house of Stephanas” is a justifiable translation, as seen by the King James Version rendering of this verse: “I beseech you, brethren, (ye know the house of Stephanas, that it is the firstfruits of Achaia, and that they have addicted themselves to the ministry of the saints,).” It’s possible Paul is referring to a Christian assembly meeting in the house of Stephanas. With Paul being the one who baptized the members of this house church.


A third possible Corinthian house church is mentioned in Paul’s letter to the Roman Christians, written from Corinth in the Spring A.D. 58: “I, Tertius, who write this letter, greet you in the Lord. Gaius, host to me and to the whole church, greets you. Erastus, the city treasurer greets you, and Quartus, the brother” (Romans 16:22-23). Tertius, Paul’s “secretary” adds a personal note to this letter; referring to a man named Gaius who is a “host of the whole church” in Corinth. This may mean that by A.D. 58, the entire Corinthian congregation was meeting in Gaius’ home. Or maybe when the “whole church” gathers for one large meeting, it happens in Gaius’ house, with smaller congregational meetings taking place in the homes of Justus, Chloe and Stephanas. Peter T. O’Brien express this later view in his comments on the early church’s use of private homes for worship: “While at Corinth Gaius is described as ‘host . . . to the whole church’ (Rom 16:23; the qualification ‘whole’ would be unnecessary if the Christians at Corinth only met as a single group, and implies smaller groups also existed in the city; cf. 1 Cor 14:23; note also 1 Cor 16:19; Rom 16:5).”8


Ephesus House Churches

The apostle Paul arrives in Ephesus in A.D. 54, where he enters the local “synagogue and continued speaking out boldly for three months, reasoning and persuading them about the kingdom of God” (Acts 19:1, 8). After meeting resistance to this message, Paul leaves the synagogue, and begins holding public meetings for two years in the school of Tyrannus, “so that all who lived in Asia heard the word of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks” (Acts 19:9-10). Altogether, Paul spent three years in Ephesus (Acts 20:31), A.D. 54 to 57. During which time a house church begins in the home of Aquila and Priscilla (1 Corinthians 16:8, 19).


After leaving Ephesus, Paul travels to Macedonia and Greece, and in the spring of A.D. 58 heads towards Jerusalem. Making a brief stop in Asia Minor, Paul meets the Ephesian elders at Miletus, south of Ephesus (Acts 20:17). Commenting on his earlier stay in Ephesus, Paul said “. . . I did not shrink from declaring to you anything that was profitable, and teaching you publicly and from house to house, solemnly testifying to both Jews and Greeks of repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ” (verses 20-21). Paul taught publicly in the “school of Tyrannus” (Acts 19:9), and “from house to house” in house churches like the one which met in the house of Aquila and Priscilla (1 Corinthians 16:19). It looks as if the Ephesian church was also a collection of house churches. According to Clinton E. Arnold, “Given the size of Ephesus [around 250,000 people] and the early tendency toward house churches, it is likely that more than one church was planted in Ephesus. Perhaps a network of house churches came into existence throughout the city and in the local villages (e.g. Hypaipa, Diashieron, Neikaia and Koloe).”9


In A. D. 68, during Paul’s second imprisonment in Rome, he writes his co-worker Timothy, who was in Ephesus, warning about false teachers who “having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away. For of this sort are they which creep into houses, and lead captive silly women laden with sins, led away with divers lusts” (2 Timothy 3:5-6 King James Version). Paul may be referring to false teachers entering people’s homes and leading individual family members astray. But as we have already seen, Ephesus had a least one house church, with strong evidence pointing to a network of house churches. It appears Paul is warning Timothy about false teachers entering house churches and leading people spiritually astray.


Troas House Church

We see mention of another possible house during Paul’s visit to Troas, during the spring of A.D. 58. On a Saturday night the local Christians gather in an “upper room” to break bread (have a fellowship meal), and listen to Paul speak (Acts 20:6-12). It was common for multistory private homes to have a dinning-room located on the top floor.10 We also know it was the practice of the early church to meet in the homes of its members (Romans 16:3-5; 1 Corinthians 16:19; Colossians 4:15; Philemon. 1-2). So it’s strong possibility this “upper room” was located in the house of a Troas Christian.


Caesarea House Church

On his way to Jerusalem in A.D. 58, Paul spends a few days in Caesarea, staying in “the house of Philip the evangelist” (Acts 21:7-8). During His visit, Philip’s house is a meeting place for the local Christians community. It’s likely Philip’s house was the location for regular worship. It was large enough for him to host Paul and his traveling companions. At the same time, Philip’s house was able to accommodate the local disciples, who were present when the prophet Agabus prophesied what would happen to Paul if he went to Jerusalem (verses 10-15).


Rome House Churches

During his first Roman captivity (A.D. 61-63), “Paul dwelt two whole years in his own rented house, and received all who came to him, preaching the kingdom of God and teaching the things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ with all confidence, no one forbidding him” (Acts 28:16, 23, 29-31 New King James Version). Probably Paul’s house became a regular meeting place for some Roman Christians.


Paul’s wouldn’t have been the only house church in Rome, and it wasn’t the first. There may have been as many as five other house churches in the city, before Paul’s arrival.11 Writing about the Christians of Rome, Mark Reasoner says, “It is generally accepted that Christianity in Rome arose not in a single church but in a plurality of house churches. . . Evidence of this plurality of churches comes from Paul’s greeting given not a church (cf. 1 Cor 1:2; 2 Cor 1:1) but to “all those who are in Rome, beloved of God, chosen saints” (Rom 1:7).”12 We find mention of these assemblies in Paul’s letter to the Romans, written in the spring of A.D. 58. During the first century Rome had no public transportation; people had to walk or have servants or slaves carry them in a liter. It was illegal for carts and animals to move through city streets during daylight hours. This was a large spread out city. It wasn’t practical for all Roman Christians to meet in one location for worship.


As we have already seen, we know there was at least one Roman house church meeting in the home of Priscilla and Aquila (Romans 16:3-5). By A.D. 58 they had left Ephesus, and returned to Rome. We find reference to a second house church in verse 10. Paul writes: “Greet Apelles, the approved in Christ. Greet those who are of the household of Aristobulus.” In the New American Standard Bible, as well as in many other translations, the word “household” is not in the Greek text, but was added by translators. Green’s Literal Translation has: “Greet Apelles, the approved in Christ; Greet those of Aristobulus.” Paul sends greetings to Aristobulus and those who are with, or of him. In verse 11 Paul sends salutations to a third house church, those who are “of Narcissus”: “Greet Herodion, my kinsman. Greet those of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord.” Again, the word “household” isn’t in the Greek, but was added. Green’s Literal Translation reads: “Greet Herodion, my kinsman. Greet those of Narcissus, those being in the Lord.” Paul greets a fourth house church and the brethren associated with it: “Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas and the brethren with them” (verse 14). Finally, Paul sends greeting to a fifth house church: “Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them” (verse 15).


Crete House Churches

In his letter to Titus, written around A. D. 67, who was stationed in Crete to help bring organization and stability to the local church (Titus 1:5), Paul warns: “For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, specially they of the circumcision: Whose mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre’s sake.” The word “house” in verse 11 is “oikos” 3624, meaning “a house, a dwelling” Abbott-Smith Lexicon. Green’s Literal Translation of verse 11 is similar: “whose mouth you must stop, who overturn whole houses, teaching things which they ought not for the sake of ill gain.” Commenting on the negative impact of these false teachers, Earle E. Ellis writes: “Some house churches were ravaged and near collapse, as Paul’s instructions to Titus indicate: ‘Restore the things that remain, and appoint elders in each city . . . For many deceivers . . . especially the circumcision party . . . are overthrowing whole houses’ (Tit 1:5, 10-11).”13 Paul is warning Titus about false teachers who are subverting whole house churches. It is possible Paul is referring to individual families, but it seems more likely to he is referring to assemblies of Christians meeting in private houses. As we have already seen, by the mid-first century it was the common practice for Christians to meet in private homes.


John’s House Churches

Towards the end of the first century (A. D. 95), the apostle John writes what we call Second John. In this letter, John writes there are certain doctrinal standards a teacher must have before being aloud to teach: “If anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching, do not receive him into your house, and do not give him a greeting;” (2 John 1:10). It would appear, John is warning a house church to be careful who they allow to enter their assembly as a teacher. In discussing John’s three epistles, Kevin N. Giles writes, “Very little is said in these epistles about congregational life, and what can be deduced comes mainly from 2 John and 3 John. These epistles seem to reflect a situation in which Christians are meeting in a number of house churches. If this is so, 2 John is a letter from one house church leader to another house church leader in the near vicinity. He calls those to whom he writes ‘the elect lady and her children’ (2 Jn 1). His advice is that anyone who does not make the true confession of Christ should not be ‘received into the house or welcomed’ (2 Jn 10), which almost certainly means not into ‘your’ house church. In 3 John such house churches are three times designated by the word ekklesia (3 Jn 6, 9, 10).”14


We see reference to these possible house churches in Third John. The first house church is lead by Gaius (verse 1), the second by Diotrephes (verse 9). Writing in the introduction to his commentary on Third John, Craig Keener says, “In this letter to Gaius, a house-church leader, John is apparently attempting to counter the opposing influences of Diotrephes, a different house-church leader who is asserting his own authority and rejecting emissaries backed by John’s apostolic authority.”15 In commenting on verse 12 he says, “This is the recommendation for Demetrius, who has not only John’s attestation but that of the rest of his home church(es). No one in Diotrephes’ house church will receive him, so Gaius’ house church must help him.”16


New Testament House Churches

In this study we examined the scriptural evidence showing that during the New Testament period, Christians assembled in private homes for worship, fellowship and instruction. There are at least twenty-five references to house churches in the New Testament. Clearly a common, if not the normal practice of the New Testament Church of God, a practice that a growing number of Christians are returning to.


Caesarea House Church

The house of Philip the evangelist (Acts 21:7-12)


Colossae House Church

The house of Philemon (Philemon 1-2)


Corinth House Churches

The house of Titius Justus (Acts 18:7)

The house of Chloe (1 Corinthians 1:11)

The house of Stephanas (1 Corinthians 16:15)

The house of Gaius (Romans 16:22-23)


Crete House Churches

Anonymous houses (Titus 1:10-11)


Ephesus House Churches

The house of Aquila and Priscilla (1 Corinthians 16:19)

Anonymous houses (Acts 20:17-21)


John’s House Churches

Anonymous houses (2 John 10)

The house of Gaius (3 John)

The house of Diotrephes (3 John 9)


Jerusalem House Churches

Anonymous houses (Acts 2:46-47)

Anonymous houses (Acts 5:42)

Anonymous houses (Acts 8:3)

The house of Mary (Acts 12:12)


Laodicea House Church

The house of Nympha (Colossians 4:15)


Rome House Churches

The house of Aquila and Priscilla (Romans 16:3-5)

The house of Aristobulus (Romans 16:10)

The house of Narcissus (Romans 16:11)

The house of Asyncritus (Romans 16:14)

The house of Philologus and Julia (Romans 16:15)

The house of Paul (Acts 28:16, 23, 29-31)


Thessalonica House Church

The house of Jason (Acts 17:1-9)


Troas House Church

The house with an upper room (Acts 20:7-12)




Notes:

1 Don Hooser, "Thirty-five Reasons Not to Leave UCG," August 9, 1997, Waco, Texas, transcribed from a tape of the sermon.

2 For more information on the subject of church government see articles on this subject at BibleStudy.org: http://www.biblestudy.org.

3 Albert Henry Newman, A Manual of Church History, Volume 1, Ancient and Medieval Church History to A. D. 1517. (Philadelphia, PA: The American Baptist Publication Society, 1899, 1933) 142.

4 Richard Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. (Penguin Books, 1965, 1975) 24.

5 The terms “direct evidence” and “indirect evidence” are from the booklet: Harvey Bluedorn, The Biblical Evidence for House Assemblies, Trivium Pursuit, 139 Colorado Street, Suite 168, Muscatine, Iowa 52761.

6 All dates are approximations and are based on the chronologies found in Frank J. Goodwin, A Harmony of the Life of St. Paul. (Baker Book House, 1951, 1988), and Merrill F. Unger, Unger’s Bible Dictionary. (Moody Press, 1966, 1982) 485-488.

7 Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, 24.


8 Peter T. O’Brien “Church,” Dictionary of Paul and the His Letters. Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorne and Ralph P. Martin. (Downers Grove, IL.: InterVaristy Press 1993) 125.

9 Clinton E. Arnold, “Ephesus,” Dictionary of Paul and the His Letters. Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorne and Ralph P. Martin. (Downers Grove, IL.: InterVaristy Press 1993) 252.

10 Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, 24.

11 See Robert E. Webber, ed., The Complete Library of Christian Worship, Volume 1, The Biblical Foundations of Christian Worship. (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1993) 155-156, for a more detailed discussion of Roman house churches.

12 Mark Reasoner, “Rome and Roman Christianity,” Dictionary of Paul and the His Letters. Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorne and Ralph P. Martin. (Downers Grove, IL.: InterVaristy Press 1993) 853.

13 Earle E. Ellis, “Pastoral Letters,” Dictionary of Paul and the His Letters. Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorne and Ralph P. Martin. (Downers Grove, IL.: InterVaristy Press 1993) 661.

14 Kevin N. Giles, “Church,” Dictionary of the Later New Testament & Its Developments. Edited by Ralph P. Martin and Peter H. Davids. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVaristy Press, 1997) 200.

15 Craig Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary New Testament. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993) 750.

16 Ibid., 751.

© Calvin Lashway 2017  -  Contact: cinfowritings@gmail.com